Fundamentals of IT: Principles of Information Systems Lecture Note No 7

Principles of Information Systems

Principles and Learning Objectives

Knowledge Management and Specialized Information Systems

Knowledge management allows organizations to share knowledge and experience among their managers and employees

Discuss the differences among data, information, and knowledge

Describe the role of the chief knowledge officer (CKO)

List some of the tools and techniques used in knowledge management

Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems

Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems

List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics

Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems (continued)

Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system

Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully

List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems

Identify at least three factors to consider in evaluating the development of an expert system

Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system

Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems

Virtual reality systems can reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information, visualize processes, and express ideas creatively

Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications

Specialized systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals

Discuss examples of specialized systems for organizational and individual use


Why Learn About Specialized Information Systems?

Knowledge management (KM) and specialized information systems used in many industries


Manager might use KM to correct a problem

Automotive manager might use KM to oversee robots

Stock trader might use a neural network to uncover patterns in stock prices

Knowledge Management Systems

ž  Data: raw facts

ž  Information:collection of facts organized so that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves

ž  Knowledge:awareness and understanding of a set of information and the ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision

ž  Knowledge management system (KMS):

ž  Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices

ž  Used to create, store, share, and use the organization’s knowledge and experience

Data and Knowledge Management Workers and Communities of Practice

ž  Data workers: data-entry personnel

  • Secretaries, administrative assistants, bookkeepers, etc.

ž  Knowledge workers:create, use, and disseminate knowledge

  • Professionals in science, engineering, or business; writers; researchers; educators; corporate designers; etc.

ž  Chief knowledge officer (CKO): top-level executive who helps the organization use a KMS to create, store, and use knowledge to achieve organizational goals

ž  Communities of practice (COP): group of people dedicated to a common discipline or practice

  • May be used to create, store, and share knowledge

Obtaining, Storing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge

Figure 11.3: Knowledge Management System

ž  Creating or obtaining knowledge

  • Knowledge workers often work in teams

ž  Storing knowledge

  • Knowledge repository: includes documents, reports, files, and databases

ž  Sharing knowledge

  • Collaborative work software and group support systems
  • Nontechnical approaches

ž  Using knowledge

  • Begins with locating organization’s knowledge

–   Knowledge map or directory

Technology to Support Knowledge Management

ž  An effective KMS is based on learning new knowledge and changing procedures and approaches as a result

  • Organizational learning
  • Organizational change

ž  Data mining and business intelligence are important in capturing and using knowledge

ž  Enterprise resource planning tools include knowledge management features

ž  Groupware can help capture, store, and use knowledge

ž  Hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, and the Internet are needed to support most knowledge management systems

ž  Examples of knowledge management products and services

  • IBM’s Lotus Notes and Domino
  • Microsoft’s Digital Dashboard, Web Store Technology, and Access Workflow Designer

Table 11.1: Additional Knowledge Management Organizations and Resources

An Overview of Artificial Intelligence

ž  Artificial intelligence (AI): ability of computers to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain

ž  Some AI applications

  • Make medical diagnoses
  • Explore for natural resources
  • Determine what is wrong with mechanical devices
  • Assist in designing and developing other computer systems

Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

ž  Artificial intelligence systems: people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate characteristics of intelligence

ž  Researchers, scientists, and experts on how human beings think are often involved in developing these systems

The Nature of Intelligence

ž  Turing Test

  • Determines whether responses from a computer with intelligent behavior are indistinguishable from those from a human being

ž  Learn from experiences and apply knowledge acquired from experience

ž  Handle complex situations

ž  Solve problems when important information is missing

ž  Determine what is important

ž  React quickly and correctly to a new situation

ž  Understand visual images

  • Perceptive system: approximates how humans see, hear, and feel objects

ž  Process and manipulate symbols

ž  Be creative and imaginative

ž  Use heuristics

The Difference between Natural and Artificial Intelligence

Table 11.2: A Comparison of Natural and Artificial Intelligence

The Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence

Figure 11.5: A Conceptual Model of Artificial Intelligence

Expert Systems

ž  Hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert

ž  Used in many business applications


ž  Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks:

ž  Requiring a high degree of precision, or

ž  Tedious or hazardous for humans

ž  Robots are essential components of today’s automated manufacturing and military systems

ž  Future robots will find wider applications in banks, restaurants, homes, doctor offices, and hazardous working environments

Vision Systems

ž  Hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures

ž  Fingerprint analysis

ž  Identifying people based on facial features

ž  Used in conjunction with robots to give these machines “sight”

Natural Language Processing and Voice Recognition

ž  Processing that allows the computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language, such as English

ž  Voice recognition: converting sound waves into words

Learning Systems

ž  Combination of software and hardware that allows the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives

ž  Learning systems software requires feedback on results of actions or decisions

ž  Feedback is used to alter what the system will do in future

Neural Networks

ž  Computer system that simulates functioning of a human brain

ž  Capable of retrieving information even if some neural nodes fail

ž  Quickly modifies stored data as a result of new information

ž  Discovers relationships and trends in large databases

ž  Solves complex problems for which all the information is not present

Figure 11.7: Neural Network Software

Other Artificial Intelligence Applications

ž  Genetic algorithm: approach to solving large, complex problems in which a number of related operations or models change and evolve until the best one emerges

ž  Intelligent agent: programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program

  • Also called intelligent robot or bot


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