# CG Important Question for 2020 Commercial Geography

Section-B (WORLD)

i. Write any two definitions of Commercial Geography (Pg. # 3)

The word geography has been derived from two Greek words “Geo” means earth and “Graphein” means to write. A literal translation would be “to describe or write about the earth”.

Definition 1: ‘G.D.Chisholm’

“Commercial Geography is concerned with the geographical facts relating to commerce.”

Definition 2: ‘Encyclopedia Britannica’

“Commercial Geography deals with the production, transportation, and exchange of useful commodities.

Definition 2: ‘Sir Dudley stamp’

“Commercial Geography is that study which makes the trader aware of the places where the surplus products are grown, when they can be brought to market and how a convenient transport can be arranged for the product”

ii. Write a note on Man-Environment Interaction. (Pg. # 17)

Man is not only a geographical agent but also an active creature. He makes an adjustment with physical surroundings and changes the shape of natural resources and makes the greatest use of them. In this way man influences his environment or surroundings. This mutual synthesis between man and natural surroundings is studied in Environmental Management.

In many cases, the factors of natural and cultural surroundings of two regions, their working and problems do not show similarity with one another. The study of such regional varieties and differences is the subject matter of environmental management. It can be said that environmental management is, in fact, a comparative study of the activities of groups of men living in various regions, which treated an adjustment with surroundings on the regional basis.

iii. If birth rate of a country is 3% and death rate is 1%, calculate the doubling time for the country. (Pg. # 23)

Doubling Time: The number of years for a given population to double, based on the annual growth rate.

Formula to determine doubling time:

Doubling time of a country = 70 / Growth Rate%

i.e., a growth rate of 2.0 represents a doubling time of 35 years.

The growth rate can be used to determine a country’s or region’s or even the planet’s “doubling time,” which tells us how long it will take for a country’s current population to double.

Given Pakistan’s overall growth of 2.1% in the year 2012, we divide 70 by 2.1 yields a value of 33.33 years. It means it will take about 33.33 years to the population of Pakistan to be doubled.

iv. Write a note on low stationary stage of population. (Pg. # 33)

Stage Four: Low Stationary:

This stage represents low stable or mature demographic societies which have low birth and death rates with very little difference between the two rates Birth rates may drop to well below replacement level as has happened in countries like Italy and UK, leading to a shrinking population, a threat to many industries that rely on population growth. As the large group born during stage two ages, it creates an economic burden on the shrinking working population. Death rates may remain consistently low or increase slightly due to increases in lifestyle diseases due to low exercise levels and high obesity and an aging population in developed countries. By the late 20th century, birth rates and death rates in developed countries leveled off at lower rate.

v. Define Commercial activities and give any four examples of Primary activities. (Pg. # 37)

It is also an economic activity but with two distinctions:

a. It is the large scale production and distribution of goods and services. Specially, interregional or between countries or on a mass level and these activities have a great impact on the economy and standard of living of that region. (that’s why the activities of individuals or small level activities are not included in commercial activities)

b. It must be a legal activity which follows or maintains the rules and instructions from some regulating and monitoring authorities.

Primary Activities:

These are the nature based activities in which we are involved to produce or get some natural goods. These are the activities which relate to the cultivation of land and extraction of minerals and fuel from the earth etc. these are also called the initial activities of production cycle.

Activities associated with the primary sector include

1. Agriculture (both subsistence and commercial)

2. Mining

3. Forestry

4. Farming

5. Grazing

6. Hunting

7. Gathering

8. Fishing and

9. Quarrying.

vi. Write the early development stage of a product’s life cycle. (Pg. # 78)

Every product has a life cycle and at the end of that life cycle there are two possible results.

1. A product of next generation replaces the product (Computer 286, 386 SX, 386 DX, 486, Pentium I,II, III,………….)

2. A new invention pulls up the product from the market (Tape Recorder, VCP and VCR —– CD Players and DVD Players)

Different stages of a product life cycle:

Manufacturing companies assess how to achieve the best advantage from various locations. During Early Development Stage, when the product is a new design concept, research and development costs are high, and limited space is required. Production is therefore located close to or within company core market (such as London or New York).

vii. Write a note on depletion of natural resources. (Pg. # 78)

Depletion of natural Resources:

The conservation of natural resources is the fundamental problem. In recent years, the depletion of natural resources has become a major focus of governments and other organizations such as the United Nations (UN). The depletion of natural resources is considered to be a sustainable development issue. The term sustainable development has many interpretations, in broad terms it is balancing the needs of the planet’s people and species now and in the future. In regards to natural resources, depletion is of concern for sustainable development as it has the ability to degrade current environment and potential to impact the needs of future generations.

viii. In 2004 Bangladesh was not included in top ten importers of cotton in 2011 it ranked 2nd after China. Comment. (Pg. # 106)

A very rapid growth in China’s textile industry forces the People’s Republic to rely on cotton imports from the United States & other major cotton-exporting nations. Even though China farms more cotton than any other country, the Chinese textiles industry demanded 42% more cotton than domestic producers could provide in 2010. By 2014, China’s demand for cotton will hit 12 million tons or about half of global cotton production.

A dramatic change in world cotton import is due to rapid growing demand from Bangladesh. In 2004-05 Bangladesh was not included in top ten importers but in 2011 it ranks 2nd after China.

ix. Dairy farming is highly capital intensive. Comment. (Pg. # 53)

Dairy is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals. It is highly capital intensive. Animal’s sheds, storage facilities for fodder, feeding and mulching machines add to the cost of dairy farming. Special emphasis is laid on cattle breeding, health care and veterinary services.

x. Analyze the given data (Uranium production in tons) (Pg. # 124)

Country Year 2004 2008 2011

Kazakhstan 3719 8521 19451

Kazakhstan:

Kazakhstan is the largest uranium producer; it has identified reserves containing 450,000t uranium, most of which is located in five major deposits (out of a total of 53 known deposits). As in the country’s gold industry, major capital investment is required to improve infrastructure and extraction technology (leaching techniques) to increase production to previous levels of 3500t/year.

Canada is the world’s 2nd largest producer of uranium in 2011, mainly from massive deposits situated in Saskatchewan. Canada produced 9145t U3O8 in 2011 (representing about 15% of global output).

Section-B ( PAKISTAN )

i. Write a note on Sindh Coast. (Pg. # 124)

Sindh Coast:

It stretches over 300 km from Hub River to Sir Creek. It has two parts; Karachi coast and Indus Delta. The Indus Delta stretches from Port Qasim to Sir Creek and covers a coastal belt of about 180 km. it is plain and overgrown with mangroves. For many km there is nothing to be seen but the swamp, and the land is hardly discernible for more than 3 km offshore. The coastline changes continuously due to siltation and sea action.

ii. Discuss climate extreme and agriculture. (Pg. # 178)

There are various stages in the growth of a crop. These are sowing, germination, elongation, flowering and grain formation. Each of these is related to specific set of climatic conditions for individual crop. However, extreme climatic conditions effect directly to plant growth. High temperature of 38o C – 42 o C and 46 o C (value set by Pakistan meteorological Department) lead to rapid loss of water through evapo-transpiration and may lead to desiccation of leaves and saplings.

a. Cannot stand with temperatures greater than 38 o C

b. Can stand with temperatures greater than 38 o C but not greater than 42 o C

c. Can stand with temperatures greater than 42 o C but not greater than 46 o C

d. Cannot stand with temperatures less than 5 o C.

iii. Show the importance of forests in the National economy. (Pg. # 178)

Total Forest Area under the control of the forest Departments (including Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas) is 4.26 million hectares. The per capita forest area is only 0.037 hectares compared to the world average of 1.00 hectares.

Importance of Forest in the National Economy:

1. Raw material for paper, sports, silk, furniture and tanning industries.

2. Medical herbs and seeds for pharmaceutical industries.

3. Recreation facilities for tourism and camping.

4. Timber/wood for fire.

5. Reduce floods intensity.

6. Increase fertilizer of land.

7. Provide employment opportunities.

8. Causes rains

9. Control soil erosion.

10. Fodder for cattle.

11. Chemicals such as turpentine oil.

12. Leaves of forests provide natural fertilizers.

iv. What is the importance of soil in agriculture? (Pg. # 188)

Importance of soil in Agriculture:

The agriculture of a country depends upon her soil’s structure and kinds. Soil is a gift of nature. Plants grow in soil and without soil the agriculture would not exist. Soils are not simply fragments of powder of rocks but a complex chemical substance consisting of rock pieces in which organic matters are fused by micro-organism. It not only support plants, but also supplies nutrients, water, heat and air.

v. On the given map of Pakistan show the dams and barrages (Any four). (Pg. # 188)

vi. Write a note on Sindh Sagar Doab. (Pg. # 169)

Doabs of the upper Indus plain: The Sindh Sagar Doab (3.2 Million Hectares) area between river Jhelum & Indus.

Bars of the Upper Indus Plain:

Scalloped interfluves or bars are foujnd in the central, higher parts of the Chaj, Rechna and Bari doabs, but the Sindh Sagar doab appear to have been covered by sand. Bar is an up rise land usually the alluvial terraces. Their boundaries are mostly formed by river-cut scarps, often over 20 feet high. Low sand or earth dunes appear on their southern ends. The soils of the scalloped interfluves are relatively uniform in texture over considerable distances, and the material is old alluvium in origin.

vii. Role of NHA in the development of road network in Pakistan. (Pg. # 235)

Role of NHA:

The national Highway Authority (NHA) was created, in 1991, through an Act of Parliament, for planning, development, operation, repair and maintenance of National ighways and Strategic Roads. It is committed to provide a safe, modern and efficient transportation system. Total length of the federalized roads under NHA now stands at 8780 km, account for 3% of the entire road network and

viii. Compare Karachi port & Gwader port w.r.t. their relative location. (Pg. # 235)

The Karachi Port:

The port of Karachi is the largest and busiest seaport of Pakistan, handling about 60% of the nation’s cargo (25 million tons per annum). It is located close to the central business district (CBD) and several industrial areas of the city. The geographic position of the port places it in close proximity ot major shipping routes such as the Strait of Hormuz. The administration of the port is carried out by the Karachi Port Trust, which was established in the nineteenth century.

Gwadar Port is a developing warm-water, deep-sea port situated at Gwadar in Baluchistan at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi and approximately 75 km east of Pakistan’s border with Iran. The port is located on the eastern bay of a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula jutting out into the Arabian Sea from the coastline.

ix. Borders of Pakistan and international road and rail link? (Pg. # 238 and 240)

INTERNATIONAL RAIL ROUTES:

• IRAN: A broad gauge railway line runs from Zahedan to Quetta, and a standard gauge line is finished from Zahedan to Kerman in central Iran, linking with the rest of the Iranian rail network.

• INDIA: Two trains operate to India – the Samjhauta Express between Delhi and Lahore, and the Thar Express between Jodhpur and Karachi. Via Mirpurkhas-Khokrapar.

Section-C (WORLD)

I. Explain the sub-division of tertiary activities. (Pg. No.41 )

Sub-division of Tertiary Activities:

1. Direct service sector

2. Quaternary activities

3. Quinary activities

1. Direct service sector:

It is the largest sector of tertiary activities and a large number of people engaged in the sector as skilled, semi-skilled and un-skilled workforce. On behalf of the volume of activities the following two are the further sub-division of this sector.

a. Specialized services; trade, transport, banking & finance and tele-communication & media.

b. All other services; miscellaneous services people engaged in.

2. Quaternary Activities: (Domain of professionals, executors and managers)

The term quaternary is applied to the most important part of the service sector. This is the domain of the professionals, highly qualified people, specialized technical executives, and managers. In general, in the complex net of service sector either they are the highly paid professionals or a bridge between the planners or decision makers and the workforce. They manage the workforce and work system as per the directives, planning and decisions of the quinary people (bosses or directors). Practically all quaternary activities occur in office building environments and in specialized environments.

3. Quinary Activities: (domain of decision makers, planners & Intellectuals).

Quinary activities are distinguished to recognize high level decision making roles in all types of large organizations, public and private. The most visible persons in this group include owners, chief executive officers and other top management executives in both government and private sectors / services. Research scientists, legal authorities, financial advisors, and professional consultants who provide strategic planning and problem-solving services belong to this cluster. Most of this high order analysis and planning occur in large urban centers or in close proximity to large universities, medical, and/or research centers. New York, Paris, London and Tokyo, for example, being the primary world financial centers, possess a large number of specialized banking and other financial executives, giving them a very large cadre (force, staff) of quinary people.

II. Discuss the importance of Population studies for the future planning of a country (Pg. No.41 )

Population studies and its importance:

Demography helps in the understanding of population problems particularly of the less developed regions of the world. It also helps in planning the population of developed and undeveloped countries. The chief problem concerning population in a country is to control population growth in correlation with the growth of health amenities, food supplies, employment, education and housing.

In brief, the following points may be noted about the importance of demography:

1. Health Planning

Persistent high fertility causes significant health problems, both for the mother and the child. In most of the developed countries married women’s are characterized by the continuous nutritional drain from repeated pregnancies. Since demography studies and connected problems therefore its study is a must for health planning of country.

2. Planning of Food Supply:

Planning of food supply means availability of adequate food for total population, both in quality as well as quantity. Inadequate food supply results in growth retardation high mortality rate, poor health, low physical activity and consequently low productivity. There food supply must grow in correlation with population growth. Thus planning of food supply requires and presupposes population studies.

3. Planning for Employment:

Employment is an international problem these days. Unemployment and under development is fast growing not only in the economically backward countries but also in more developed nations. A demographic factor of considerable importance is the high dependency ratio in less developed countries such as Pakistan and India where four or five persons depend upon the income of one person. Therefore, employment planning requires study of population in all its aspects.

4. Planning of Education:

Nowadays every nation in concerned with providing proper education to the children. The number of children however, is constantly increasing. Therefore, educational planning for the children requires the demographical planning. This is also requires in the case of uneducated adults. This estimated about the future needs of education are also made on the basis of estimated of growth of population.

5. Planning for Housing:

Demand for housing increases with the increase in the size of population. Therefore, data for mortality, fertility, migration and family formation provides basis for estimates of housing required. In short, the study of population is an explanation of the phenomenon of population growth; it tries to explain the rise and fall, the growth and decrease of population in different countries.

III. What is HDI? Discuss its importance in measurement of quality of population. (Pg. No.149 )

The Human Development Index (HDI):

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary of human development around the world and implies whether a country is developed, still developing, or underdeveloped based on factors such as life expectancy, education, literacy, gross domestic product per capita. The results of the HDI are published annually in the human Development Report, which is published by the UN Development Program (UNDP).

The Human Development Index Today:

Today, the HDI examines three basic dimensions to measure a country’s growth and achievements in human development.

The first of these is health for the country’s people. This is measured by life expectancy at birth and those with higher life expectancies rank higher than those with lower life expectancies.

The second dimension measured in the HDI is a country’s overall knowledge level as measured by the adult literacy rate combined with the gross enrollment ratios of students in primary school through the university level.

The third and final dimension in the HDI is a country’s standard of living. Those with higher standards of living rank higher than those with lower standards of living. This dimension is measured with the gross domestic product per capita in purchasing power parity terms, based on United States dollar.

Standard of Living and Quality of Population:

Peoples standard of living tells you how well off they are. We can measure their standard of living by looking at

• Their average income

• The average number of calories eaten per person

• The number of people per doctor

• The percentage of people who are able to read and write

• The average life expectancy

• The infant mortality rate.

These factors are known as standard of living indicators.

Countries that have a high standard of living are mainly found in the northern part of the world, and are called developed countries. Canada, France and Japan are examples of developed countries. This part of the world is also known as the “North”.

Countries that have a low standard of living are mainly found in the southern part of the world and are called developing countries. Bolivia, Chad and Afghanistan are examples of developing countries.

The top 10 countries in the terms of Quality of life are:

1. Norway

2. Switzerland

3. Luxembourg

4. Finland

5. Denmark

6. Australia

7. Germany

8. Sweden

9. United states

IV. Attempt any four of the following.

a. Temperature for wheat cultivation. (Pg. No.97)

Wheat is the best grown crop under cool climate. About 80 percent of world’s wheat is winter wheat which is sown in late autumn or early winter. It remains in the ground all the winter, grows during the spring and ripens during the summer. It requires a moderate temperature between 15oC to 22 o C. At the time of harvesting the temperature should not be less than 15 o C and a fair amount of rainfall between 10 to 30 inches is necessary for the successful growth of wheat crop.

b. Major producers of rice. (Pg. No.100)

The chief rice producers are China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, Burma, Korea, Vietnams, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Laos, and Pakistan etc. some of the countries have devoted more land to rice than any other crops e.g. in Laos rice is grown on 95% of the cropland, Bangladesh 75%, Thailand 66%, Burma 60%, Japan nearly 40%, China and India about 25%. Other producing countries which do not belong to monsoon lands of Asia are Brazil, U.S.A., Egypt, Italy, Australia, Spain and African countries but their productions in comparison with the Asian countries are insignificant.

c. Major importers of tea. (Pg. No.102)

d. Latitudinal extent of sugarcane cultivation. (Pg. No.103)

Sugar-cane is grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas whereas beet is cultivated mainly in temperate countries. Sugarcane is confined between 37oN and 30oS latitudes. It flourishes best on deep fertile soil rich in salt and lime. The tropical lowland-islands, coastal plains, valley floors and flat to rolling plains with deep fertile soil are ideal for the successful cultivation of sugar cane.

e. Importance of irrigation for cotton. (Pg. No.104)

Better crops and better quality fibers are obtained with the use of irrigation, because correct amount of water and at the correct time is possible only by irrigation. Where irrigation is used, the fields are usually watered every 10 to 15 days during the growing period. Sea breeze is beneficial for the quality of the fiber. So, all the good quality cotton of the world is cultivated in regions not far away from the sea.

f. Suitable areas for rubber plantation. (Pg. No.107)

Rubber can be grown on a wide range of soils but deep fertile friable and well drained soils are ideal. Such soils promote rood development but low lying flat lands remain water soaked so trees suffer from root and fungus diseases. Thus gently sloping land is most easily cleared of its original vegetation by mechanical equipment or by manual labour, plantation is easier and makes the work of the tapers more smooth.

g. Important buyers of cotton. (any four) (Pg. No.107)

A very rapid growth in China’s textile industry forces the People’s Republic to rely on cotton imports from the United States & other major cotton-exporting nations. Even though China farms more cotton than any other country, the Chinese textiles industry demanded 42% more cotton than domestic producers could provide in 2010. By 2014, China’s demand for cotton will hit 12 million tons or about half of global cotton production.

A dramatic change in world cotton import is due to rapid growing demand from Bangladesh. In 2004-05 Bangladesh was not included in top ten importers but in 2011 it ranks 2nd after China.

Section-C (PAKISTAN)

I. Discuss the canal system of Pakistan. (Pg. No.193)

Canal System of Pakistan:

• Main Canal: Main Canal takes off directly from the upstream sid of river head works or dam. Usually no direct cultivation is proposed. Most of the main canals are aligned as contour canals to derive benefit.

• Branch Canal: All off takes from main canal with head discharge of 14-15 cusecs and above are termed as branch canals.

• Major Distributaries: All off takes from a main canal or branch canal with head discharge lesser than 15 cusecs are termed as major distributaries.

• Minor distributaries: All off take from major distributaries serving more than 40.47 hectares are termed as minor distributaries.

• Field Channel: All pipes off takes serving less than 40.47 hectares of area called field channels.

Canal is an artificial waterway constructed for purpose of irrigation, drainage, or navigation, or in connection with a hydroelectric dam. Canal is the thing which brings river water close to the field where it is required to be.

The canals come out of rivers, dams, and barrages:

The irrigation system of Pakistan is one of the largest irrigation system in the world. In Pakistan almost 75% of the land which is in agricultural use is covered by the irrigation system. Currently there are 3 large dams and 85 small dams, along with these dams there are 19 barrages to fulfill the water need. From these dams and barrages 12 inter link canals and 45 main canals have been taken to provide water to the fields. In Pakistan canals are the most popular means of irrigation as they supply plenty of water at very cheap rates.

Types of Canals:

There are three main types of canals in Pakistan:

1. Perennial Canals

2. Non-Perennial Canals.

3. Inundation Canals.

II. Write a note on History of population growth of Pakistan. (Pg. No.223)

Population of Pakistan is composed of different cultural groups. Their customs and traditions are quite different. But, Islam is a binding force and plays an important role for joining them as a nation of same tradition of history. There is a great influence of Hindu and British culture in the present day urban society of Pakistan. In general a male oriented society dominates the family system.

According to an estimate the population of Pakistan is 187,342,700 (Nov 27, 2012). In 2009, the population increased rate was 1.78% per annum which has gone up with the passage of time to 1.9% per annum. The present increase in the population in Pakistan is considered to be one of the highest in the world which is the highest alarming in view of the scarcity of the resources. Low literacy rate and poor economic conditions are the main and major factors which have contributed a great deal towards the enormous increase in the population. The majority of Pakistani population about 63% consists of rural population while the remaining 37% is urban.

Now the table shows the province wise population according to the land:

Provinces Land Area Population

Balochistan 43.6 % 5.1%

Punjab 25.8% 56.1%

Sindh 17.7% 22.6%

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 12.8% 15.7%

The density of population differs from country to country. Even within the country it varies from one region to another. In Pakistan, Punjab is the most densely populated province while Balochistan is considered to be the most thinly inhabited province in spite of its vast territory.

III. Explain the essential features of occupational structure of Pakistan. (Pg. No.230)

ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE:

1. Agriculture is Main Occupation:

In Pakistan, currently about 52% of population is engaged in agriculture as against 71% in 1961. It has given rise to disguised unemployment. Therefore, there is vary little change of reducing the burden of population on agriculture.

2. Less development of Industries:

In Pakistan only 19% of population depends on manufacturing industries, mining etc. whereas, in industrialized nations like USA 43%, in Bulgaria 48%in Japan 34% people are engaged in secondary sector. It proves that Pakistan is industrially backward.

3. Unbalanced Economy:

The economy of Pakistan is highly unbalanced. All production activities are not equally developed. Too much dependence on agriculture is a symptom of economic backwardness. Involvement of female workers in different commercial sectors is very low. So, the dependency ratio of Pakistan is very high as compare to may other developed and developing countries.

4. Less Income:

Per capita income and the standard of living of the people in Pakistan are low. It is so because agriculture yields less income than trade.

5. Small Villages:

Predominance of agriculture testifies that most of the people in Pakistan must be living in small villages and the number of people living in towns and cities must be very small. In Pakistan, 63% of population lives in rural areas and 37% in urban areas.

6. Backward Agriculture:

In Pakistan, about 52% of population is engaged in agriculture, yet it imports food grains from other countries. It confirms that our agriculture is very backward. On the other hand, in the USA 2% of the population is engaged in agriculture which exports the surplus of food to other countries. Thus it becomes imperative that agricultural sector should be developed.

7. Increase in the Proportion of Agricultural Labourers:

Due to the rapids increase in rural population the proportion of agricultural labourers has been rising every year. It underlines the fact that the number of wage-earners is increasing in agricultural sector.

8. Less development of Tertiary Activities:

Tertiary activities like services, banking and communication, transport etc. are not much developed in Pakistan. Here, 29% of population is engaged in tertiary activities as against 69% in the USA, 66% in France and 72% in Canada.

9. Trends in Occupational Structure:

Therefore it should be conclude that, there has been no significant change in the occupational structure of Pakistan for the last sixty year.